Horseshoe kidney

Horseshoe kidney

  • most common renal anomaly
  • risk factor for kidney stones and transitional cell carcinoma of renal pelvis
  • vast majority cases are sporadic
  • frequently associated with many genitourinary abns and chromosomal conditions eg Down’s syndrome
  • Usually asymptomatic, symptoms when there are eg kidney stones.


  • formed by fusion across the midline of two distinct functioning kidneys at lower poles.
  • They are connected by an isthmus.
  • The normal ascent of the kidneys is impaired by inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) which hooks over the isthmus


  • No treatment required and patient has normal life expectancy.



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